IPMK Mediates Activation of ULK Signaling and Transcriptional Regulation of Autophagy Linked to Liver Inflammation and Regeneration
Autophagy plays a broad role in health and disease. Here, we show that inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) is a prominent physiological determinant of autophagy and is critical for liver inflammation and regeneration. Deletion of IPMK diminishes autophagy in cell lines and mouse liver. Regulation of autophagy by IPMK does not require catalytic activity. Two signaling axes, IPMK-AMPK-Sirt-1 and IPMK-AMPK-ULK1, appear to mediate the influence of IPMK on autophagy. IPMK enhances autophagy-related transcription by stimulating AMPK-dependent Sirt-1 activation, which mediates the deacetylation of histone 4 lysine 16. Furthermore, direct binding of IPMK to ULK and AMPK forms a ternary complex that facilitates AMPK-dependent ULK phosphorylation. Deletion of IPMK in cell lines and intact mice virtually abolishes lipophagy, promotes liver damage as well as inflammation, and impairs hepatocyte regeneration. Thus, targeting IPMK may afford therapeutic benefits in disabilities that depend on autophagy and lipophagy-specifically, in liver inflammation and regeneration.