Sclerosing Epithelioid Fibrosarcoma of the Bone With Rare EWSR1-CREB3L3 Translocation Driving Upregulation of the PI3K/mTOR Signaling Pathway
Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is an uncommon neoplasm that rarely presents in bone. It is characterized by epithelioid cells arranged in nests and single-file cords within a sclerotic stromal background which may mimic neoplastic bone. SEF harbors an EWSR1 translocation, which may complicate its distinction from Ewing sarcoma in cases with histomorphologic overlap. We present a diagnostically challenging case of SEF in the mandible of a 16-year-old girl. Our experience highlights the lack of specificity of traditional morphology and EWSR1 break-apart fluorescent in situ hybridization. Open-ended RNA-based fusion gene testing coupled with MUC4 immunohistochemistry aided the eventual diagnosis in this case. Herein, we report the third case of SEF with EWSR1-CREB3L3 translocation and show that this fusion leads to aberrant upregulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in heterologous cell models.